Jump to content

Saint John, New Brunswick

Coordinates: 45°16′50″N 66°04′34″W / 45.28056°N 66.07611°W / 45.28056; -66.07611
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from St. John, New Brunswick)

Saint John
The City of Saint John[a]
Coat of arms of Saint John
Official logo of Saint John
"O Fortunati Quorum Jam Moenia Surgunt"
(Latin for, "O Fortunate Ones Whose Walls Are Now Rising."
or "O Happy They, Whose Promised Walls Already Rise")
Saint John is located in Canada
Saint John
Saint John
Location of Saint John
Saint John is located in New Brunswick
Saint John
Saint John
Saint John (New Brunswick)
Coordinates: 45°16′50″N 66°04′34″W / 45.28056°N 66.07611°W / 45.28056; -66.07611
ProvinceNew Brunswick
Historic countriesKingdom of France
Kingdom of Great Britain
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
CountySaint John
ParishCity of Saint John[3]
Founded onJune 24, 1604[4]
Major Settlement Started1783[4]
IncorporationMay 18, 1785 (1785-05-18)
Named forSaint John River
 • MayorDonna Reardon
 • Governing bodySaint John City Council
 • MPsWayne Long
 • MLAsTrevor Holder, Gerry Lowe, Dorothy Shephard, Glen Savoie
 • Land315.59 km2 (121.85 sq mi)
 • Urban
70.05 km2 (27.05 sq mi)
 • Metro
3,505.66 km2 (1,353.54 sq mi)
Highest elevation
80.8 m (265.1 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
 • City69,895[2]
 • Density221.5/km2 (574/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Urban density905.8/km2 (2,346/sq mi)
 • Metro
 • Metro density37.3/km2 (97/sq mi)
 • City Pop 2016-2021
Increase 3.4%
 • Dwellings
Demonym(s)Saint Johner, Saint-Jeannois(e), Johner (colloquial)
Time zoneUTC−04:00 (AST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−03:00 (ADT)
Canadian Postal code
E2H, E2J, E2K, E2L, E2M, E2N, E2P, E2R, and E2S
Area code506 and 428
Telephone exchanges202, 214, 333, 343, 557–8, 592, 608, 631–640, 642–654, 657–8, 663, 672, 674, 693–4, 696, 721, 977
Highways Route 1
Route 7
Route 100
Route 111
Route 820
Route 825
NTS Map21G8 Saint John
GDP (Saint John CMA)CA$6.4 billion (2016)[8]
GDP per capita (Saint John CMA)CA$51,021 (2016)
Websitesaintjohn.ca/en Edit this at Wikidata

Saint John is a seaport city located on the Bay of Fundy in the province of New Brunswick, Canada. It is Canada's oldest incorporated city,[b] established by royal charter on May 18, 1785, during the reign of George III.[9] The port is Canada's third-largest by tonnage with a cargo base that includes dry and liquid bulk, break bulk, containers, and cruise.[10] The city was the most populous in New Brunswick until the 2016 census, when it was overtaken by Moncton. It is currently the second-largest city in the province, with a population of 69,895 over an area of 315.59 km2 (121.85 sq mi).[11]

French explorer Samuel de Champlain landed at Saint John Harbour on June 24, 1604, the feast of St. John the Baptist, and named the Saint John River in his honour;[12][13] the indigenous Mi'kmaq and Wolastoqiyik peoples called the river "Wolastoq". The Saint John area was an important area for trade and defence for Acadia during the French colonial era, and Fort La Tour, in the city's harbour, was a pivotal battleground during the Acadian Civil War.[14]

After more than a century of ownership disputes between the French and English over the land surrounding Saint John, the British government deported the Acadians in 1755 following the destruction of Fort Menagoueche, which was reconstructed as Fort Frederick. Following the pillaging and burning of Fort Frederick by American Privateers, Fort Howe was constructed across the river above the harbour in 1779. In 1785, the City of Saint John was established by uniting the two communities of Parr-town[15] and Carleton on either side of the harbour after the arrival of thousands of refugees from the newly founded United States who wished to remain British after the American Revolution. During the next century, immigration via Partridge Island, especially during the Great Famine, would fundamentally change the city's demographics and culture.


A blacksmith shop near Saint John Harbour during the late 19th century.

The Saint John area had been inhabited by peoples of the Wabanaki Confederacy for thousands of years. The northwestern coastal region of the Bay of Fundy was home to the Passamaquoddy Nation, while the Saint John River valley north of the bay became the domain of the Wolastoqiyik Nation. The Mi'kmaq also frequented the Saint John area due to the harbour and coast being an important hunting ground for seals. The area around the harbour, where the city is, has been traditionally called Menahkwesk by the Wolastoqiyik people, who continue to reside in and around the city. In precolonial times, the Wolastoqiyik lived in mostly self-sustaining villages living largely off bass, sturgeon, salmon, corn, wild roots and berries.[16]

In 1604, Samuel de Champlain landed at Saint John Harbour,[17] though he did not settle the area. Saint John played a crucial role in trade and defense for Acadia during the French colonial era, with Fort La Tour in the city's harbour becoming a pivotal battleground during the Acadian Civil War.[14] At the end of the Seven Years' War, the British took the region from the French.

The population of Saint John grew with immigration from the former Thirteen Colonies and Europe. In 1785, Saint John became the first incorporated city in what is now Canada.[9] Immigration led to the building of North America's first quarantine station, Partridge Island.[18]

The Marco Polo

The city became a shipyard of global stature, producing vessels such as the 1851 ship Marco Polo, which became the fastest in the world,[19] and witnessing the development of the automated foghorn by Robert Foulis.[20]

Bird's-eye view of Saint John in 1882

As the city grew in strategic importance to English power and capital, unrest grew among many of its working class. Black Saint Johners faced restrictions on trade, fishing and voting, compelling the majority of the city's Black community to settle in Portland (the city's north end), which later became amalgamated with Saint John.[16] In 1849, Canada's first labour union, the Laborer's Benevolent Association (now ILA local 273) was formed by longshoremen.[21] Between 1840 and 1860, sectarian violence became rampant in Saint John as tensions escalated in response to the poor living conditions of poor Irish Catholics, resulting in some of the worst urban riots in Canadian history.[22] Saint John experienced a cholera outbreak in 1854 that claimed over 1,500 lives,[23] as well as the Great Fire of Saint John in 1877 that destroyed 40% of the city and left 13,000 people homeless.[24] Although the fire caused damages exceeding $10 million (equivalent to approximately $256 million today),[25][26] Saint John quickly embarked on rebuilding. Nevertheless, the aftermath prompted many residents to leave the city.[24]

Geography and climate


Physical geography

Covered bridges dot the Greater Saint John region.

Situated in the south-central portion of the province, along the north shore of the Bay of Fundy at the mouth of the Saint John River, the city is split by the south-flowing river and the east side is bordered on the north by the Kennebecasis River where it meets the Saint John River at Grand Bay. Saint John Harbour, where the two rivers meet the Bay of Fundy, is a deep water port and ice-free all year long. Partridge Island is in the harbour. The city land area is 315.96 km2 (121.99 sq mi), and the metropolitan area covers 3,509.62 km2 (1,355.07 sq mi).[27]

Stonehammer UNESCO Geopark, the first Geopark in North America, is centred around Saint John. The Geopark has been recognized by UNESCO as having exceptional geological significance. The park contains rock formations that date back to the Precambrian era and some of the rocks may be a billion years old.

The Saint John River itself flows into the Bay of Fundy through a narrow gorge several hundred metres wide at the centre of the city. It contains a unique phenomenon called the Reversing Falls where the diurnal tides of the bay reverse the water flow of the river for several kilometres. A series of underwater ledges at the narrowest point of this gorge also create a series of rapids.

The topography surrounding Saint John is hilly; a result of the influence of two coastal mountain ranges which run along the Bay of Fundy – the St. Croix Highlands and the Caledonia Highlands. The soil throughout the region is extremely rocky with frequent granite outcrops. The coastal plain hosts numerous freshwater lakes in the eastern, western and northern parts of the city.

In Saint John the height difference from low to high tide is approximately 8 metres (28 ft) due to the funnelling effect of the Bay of Fundy as it narrows. The Reversing Falls in Saint John, actually an area of strong rapids, provides one example of the power of these tides; at every high tide, ocean water is pushed through a narrow gorge in the middle of the city and forces the Saint John River to reverse its flow for several hours.



Saint John, especially in its Uptown region, features a multitude of architectural styles spanning from the 19th and early 20th centuries, with residences and buildings containing Victorian, Romanesque Revival, and Second Empire architectural styles.[28] Over time, the city would see the use of Georgian, Greek Revival, Gothic Revival, Italianate, Second Empire and Queen Anne style architecture.[29]

As Saint John rebuilt from the Great Fire in 1877, buildings would start to be constructed using brick and stone rather than wood.[30] During the late 19th to early 20th centuries, the most popular styles in the city were Queen Anne and Romanesque architecture. In 1911, a proposed city hall was to share Gothic and Second Empire architectural styles. Over time, the city would no longer adopt some of these styles.[31] Buildings in Saint John also feature stone carvings and sculptures.[32][33]

In 1982, Saint John introduced the Trinity Royal Heritage Conservation Area, which serves to preserve historic districts and buildings in the city.[34] The Saint John Preservation Areas By-Law regulates exterior work done to these properties in a way that preserves the historic architecture in buildings built prior to 1915.[35][36][37]

Brunswick Square office tower
Saint John City Market

List of buildings in Saint John:

  • Courtney Bay Smokestacks (each 106.7 m (350 ft))
  • Brunswick Square (80.8 m (265 ft)) 19-storey office tower with 511,032 sq ft (47,476.4 m2) which was built in 1976. It is the largest office building in New Brunswick in terms of square footage and second in Atlantic Canada behind the Maritime Centre in Halifax.
  • Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception (Gothic style Catholic cathedral, construction began in 1853, its spire rises to 70.1 m (230 ft))
  • Saint John City Hall (55.2 m (181 ft)) 16-storey office building (165,000 sq ft (15,300 m2))
  • Brunswick House (52 m (171 ft)) 14-storey office building (103,000 sq ft (9,600 m2))[38]
  • Irving Building (50 m (160 ft)) 14-storey office building[39]
  • Harbourside Senior Citizens Housing Complex (43 m (141 ft)) 12-storey apartment building
  • Harbour Building (37 m (121 ft)) 10-storey office building
  • Mercantile Centre (30 m (98 ft)) 7-storey office building (106,600 sq ft (9,900 m2))[40]
  • Chateau Saint John 8-storey hotel (112 rooms)[41]
  • City Market (built in 1876, oldest city market in North America, with an original ship's hull roof design)
  • Loyalist House (built in 1817)
  • Irving Oil Home Office (2019) 11-storey office building

Parks and nature


Saint John is home to the historic King's Square, an urban park located in the city's Uptown region.[42] Multiple historic buildings are located by the park, including the Saint John City Market, the Imperial Theatre, as well as the former Admiral Beatty Hotel. King's Square's counterpart, Queen Square, is another urban park located a few blocks south from it.[43] Queen Square features an annual outdoor farmers market which runs through the summer months.[44][45]

Located in west Saint John is the Irving Nature Park, located in the city's west side and measuring 600 acres (240 hectares).[46][47] Saint John is also home to Rockwood Park, a large municipal park located to the east of the Millidgeville neighbourhood.[48] Designed in the 19th century by landscape designer Calvert Vaux, one of the designers for New York City's Central Park,[49] It features 2,200 acres of park area, ten lakes, and 55 trails and footpaths.[50]


Row houses in Saint John

According to Saint John mapping data, the city has 33 neighborhoods categorized into four groups: North, East, South and West.[51][52]


Saint John
Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Environment Canada[91]
Imperial conversion
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

The climate of Saint John is humid continental (Köppen climate classification Dfb). The Bay of Fundy never fully freezes, thus moderating the winter temperatures compared with inland locations. Even so, with the prevailing wind blowing from the west (from land to sea), the average January temperature is about −8.2 °C (17.2 °F). Summers are usually warm to hot, and daytime temperatures often exceed 25 °C (77 °F). The highest temperature recorded in a given year is usually 30 or 31 °C (86 or 88 °F). The confluence of cold Bay of Fundy air and inland warmer temperatures often creates onshore winds that bring periods of fog and cooler temperatures during the summer months.

Precipitation in Saint John totals about 1,295 mm (51.0 in) annually and is well distributed throughout the year, although the late autumn and early winter are typically the wettest time of year. Snowfalls can often be heavy, but rain is as common as snow in winter, and it is not unusual for the ground to be snow-free even in mid-winter.

The highest temperature ever recorded in Saint John was 34.5 °C (94 °F) on June 20, 2024.[92] [93] The coldest temperature ever recorded was −36.7 °C (−34 °F) on February 11, 1948.[93]

Climate data for Saint John (Saint John Airport), elevation: 103 m (338 ft), 1981−2010 normals, extremes 1871−present[c]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high humidex 16.8 13.3 27.0 23.8 35.4 42.0 40.3 40.3 39.4 28.3 24.0 19.8 42.0
Record high °C (°F) 14.5
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −2.5
Daily mean °C (°F) −7.9
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −13.3
Record low °C (°F) −33.2
Record low wind chill −44.8 −44.4 −39.5 −26.1 −13.9 −2.6 0.0 0.0 −5.7 −12.9 −25.9 −41.9 −44.8
Average precipitation mm (inches) 123.5
Average rainfall mm (inches) 66.1
Average snowfall cm (inches) 64.3
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 16.2 12.8 14.0 13.9 13.7 12.9 11.5 10.5 10.5 11.9 14.4 15.6 157.9
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 6.7 5.3 7.6 11.0 13.6 12.9 11.5 10.5 10.5 11.7 12.5 8.3 122.1
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 12.9 10.2 9.4 5.1 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 3.9 10.2 52.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 124.9 124.5 149.9 165.9 199.0 211.6 225.9 216.8 181.9 147.8 97.0 102.0 1,947.3
Percent possible sunshine 44.0 42.6 40.7 41.0 43.2 45.3 47.7 49.6 48.3 43.4 33.8 37.4 43.1
Source: Environment Canada[93][94][95][96][97]



At the 2021 census conducted by Statistics Canada, Saint John had a population of 69,895 people that were living in 31,825 of 33,908 total private dwellings. The population density was 221.5 inhabitants per square kilometre (573.7/sq mi),[2] and is most densely populated in Uptown Saint John.[101] The median total household income was $62,800. Of the city's population aged between 25 and 64, 24% held a bachelor's degree or higher, 58% held a postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree, and 32% had a high school diploma or equivalent. The median age was 44 years.[2]

At the census metropolitan area (CMA) level in the 2021 census, the Saint John CMA had a population of 130,613 living in 55,865 of its 59,272 total private dwellings, a change of 3.5% from its 2016 population of 126,202. With a land area of 3,505.66 km2 (1,353.54 sq mi), it had a population density of 37.3/km2 (96.5/sq mi) in 2021.[102]


Partridge Island immigration station

Historically, as one of Canada's main ports, Saint John has been a centre for immigration from all over the world. The city was incorporated in the late 1700s after more than 3,300 Black Loyalist refugees came to Saint John along with more than 10,000 White refugees after the American Revolution.[103] In the years between 1815 and 1867, when immigration of that era passed its peak, more than 150,000 immigrants from Ireland came to Saint John dramatically changing the city.

Those who came in the earlier period were largely tradesmen, and many stayed in Saint John, becoming the backbone of its builders. But when the Great Famine of Ireland raged between 1845 and 1849, huge waves of famine refugees flooded the city's shores. It is estimated that between 1845 and 1847, some 30,000 arrived, more people than were living in the city at the time. In 1847, dubbed "Black 47", one of the worst years of the famine, some 16,000 immigrants, most of them from Ireland, arrived at Partridge Island, the immigration and quarantine station at the mouth of Saint John Harbour.[104]

As of the 2021 census, approximately 86.4% of the residents were white, while 10.9% were visible minorities and 2.8% were Indigenous. The largest visible minority groups were Black (2.7%), South Asian (2.4%), Arab (1.5%), Chinese (1.4%), and Filipino (0.9%).[2]

Panethnic groups in the City of Saint John (2001−2021)
Panethnic group 2021[2] 2016[105] 2011[106] 2006[107] 2001[108]
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
European[f] 58,875 86.35% 59,480 90.85% 62,940 92.68% 62,780 94.14% 65,375 95.49%
Indigenous 1,895 2.78% 1,430 2.18% 1,560 2.3% 850 1.27% 640 0.93%
African 1,820 2.67% 1,400 2.14% 1,200 1.77% 960 1.44% 1,110 1.62%
South Asian 1,605 2.35% 455 0.69% 350 0.52% 375 0.56% 205 0.3%
Middle Eastern[g] 1,310 1.92% 845 1.29% 520 0.77% 360 0.54% 185 0.27%
East Asian[h] 1,125 1.65% 1,170 1.79% 880 1.3% 940 1.41% 460 0.67%
Southeast Asian[i] 900 1.32% 360 0.55% 250 0.37% 215 0.32% 150 0.22%
Latin American 345 0.51% 185 0.28% 155 0.23% 155 0.23% 125 0.18%
Other/multiracial[j] 285 0.42% 140 0.21% 55 0.08% 50 0.07% 205 0.3%
Total responses 68,180 97.55% 65,470 96.88% 67,910 96.93% 66,690 98.01% 68,465 98.28%
Total population 69,895 100% 67,575 100% 70,063 100% 68,043 100% 69,661 100%
Note: Totals greater than 100% due to multiple origin responses



87.2% of residents spoke English as a mother tongue. Other common first languages were French (3.7%), Arabic (1.5%) Chinese languages (1.0%) and Tagalog (0.5%).



58.5% of residents were Christian, down from 79.6% in 2011.[109] 29.7% were Catholic, 20.6% were Protestant, 5.1% were Christian n.o.s, and 3.0% were other Christian denominations or related traditions. 36.0% of the population were non-religious or secular, up from 18.4% in 2011. Other religions accounted for 5.5% of the population, up from 2.0% in 2011. The largest non-Christian religions were Islam (3.1%) and Hinduism (1.0%).


Colsen Cove generating station
The Old Post Office

Saint John's location along the Bay of Fundy has been of major importance to the city's prosperity. The bay's dramatic tidal range prevents the harbour from icing over, allowing the city to be accessible all year round.[110] Shipbuilding, shipping and lumber trade rose as prominent industries.[111][112] By 1840, one-third of New Brunswick's timber, as well as two-thirds of its sawn lumber and manufactured wood products, were exported through Saint John.[110] At one point, Saint John was British North America's biggest shipbuilding city,[113] constructing many well-known ships, including the Marco Polo.[112] However, these industries suffered a decline in trade due to technological advancements,[114][112] which was only made worse with the Great Fire of Saint John in 1877.[112] Shipbuilding in Saint John permanently ceased in 2003 following the closure of the Saint John shipyard, which had been idle for the past three years.[115][116]

Today, Saint John benefits from industries such as tourism, reporting a tourism expenditure of $282 million in 2018.[117] Port of Saint John, the city's port, allows for a capacity of three cruise ships, and has been a cruise ship destination since 1989,[118] first welcoming the MS Cunard Princess.[119] Saint John receives around 80 cruise ships annually.[120] As of the 2023 cruise schedule, Saint John is scheduled to receive 190,680 passengers' worth of cruise ships.[121] The port also carries over 20 million metric tonnes of cargo annually.[122]

Arts and culture

Fiddlehead sculpture at the Saint John Arts Centre in the city's uptown

The arts and culture sector plays a large role in Saint John's economy. The Imperial Theatre is home to the highly acclaimed Saint John Theatre Company, and the Symphony New Brunswick and hosts a large collection of plays, concerts and other stage productions year-round. Harbour Station entertainment complex is home to the Saint John Sea Dogs of the QMJHL.

Art galleries in Saint John cover the uptown, more than any other Atlantic Canadian city.[citation needed] Artists like Miller Brittain and Fred Ross have made Uptown Saint John their home, and now the torch has been passed to artists like Gerard Collins, Cliff Turner and Peter Salmon and their respective galleries. Uptown art galleries also include the Paris Crew, Trinity Galleries, Citadel Gallery, Handworks Gallery and the Saint John Arts Centre (SJAC). The SJAC in the Carnegie Building hosts art exhibits, workshops, local songwriters' circles and other shows too small to be featured at the grand Imperial Theatre.

Heavy industry


Saint John maintains industrial infrastructure in the city's East side such as Canada's largest oil refinery as well as the country's largest dry dock. Capitalist K.C. Irving and his family built his unfettered industrial conglomerate in the city by buying up mills, shipyards, media outlets, and other industrial infrastructure during the 20th century, and still continue to this day. Today Irving dominates the city and province with stakes in oil, forestry, shipbuilding, media and transportation. Irving companies remain dominant employers in the region with North America's first deepwater oil terminal,[123] a pulp mill, a paper mill and a tissue paper plant.

Other important economic activity in the city is generated by the Port of Saint John.[how?][124]

Saint John has a long history of brewers, such as Simeon Jones, The Olands, and James Ready. The city is now home to Moosehead Breweries, James Ready Brewing Co., Big Tide Brewing Co., Picaroon's and other craft brewers. The Moosehead Brewery (established in 1867, is Canada's only nationally distributed independent brewery [M. Nicholson]), James Ready Brewing Co., the New Brunswick Power Corporation which operates three electrical generating stations in the region including the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station, Bell Aliant which operates out of the former New Brunswick Telephone headquarters, the Horizon Health Network, which operates 5 hospitals in the Saint John area,[125] and numerous information technology companies. There are also a number of call centres which were established in the 1990s under provincial government incentives.

View from Fort Howe of the Saint John skyline prior to Peel Plaza

Maritime industries


Saint John is a major Canadian port, and the only city on the Bay of Fundy. Until the first decade of the 21st century, Canada's largest shipyard (Irving Shipbuilding) had been an important employer in the city. During the 1980s-early 1990s the shipyard was responsible for building 9 of the 12 Halifax-class multi-purpose patrol frigates for the Canadian Navy. However, the Irving family closed the shipyard in 2003 and centralized in Halifax leaving the Saint John dry dock sitting idle.[citation needed]

Ecological research on surrounding marine life of the Bay of Fundy and the Saint John and Kennebecasis Rivers is centred in the city. The University of New Brunswick's Marine Biology department in Saint John as well as local NGO's and the federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans heads the majority of research and monitoring work on marine life and environments.[126]

Traditional fisheries (lobster, scallops etc.) still make up the livelihood for many Saint Johners today. Aquaculture, primarily Atlantic Salmon farming, has grown to be a major employer in the region as the decline of other traditional wild fisheries has unfolded in recent decades. Cooke Aquaculture, one of the largest companies in the industry is headquartered in Saint John.[127]

Prior to the opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1959, the Port of Saint John functioned as the winter port for Montreal, Quebec when shipping was unable to traverse the sea ice in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and St. Lawrence River. The Canadian Pacific Railway opened a line to Saint John from Montreal in 1889 across the state of Maine and transferred the majority of its trans-Atlantic passenger and cargo shipping to the port during the winter months. The port fell into decline following the seaway opening and the start of year-round icebreaker services in the 1960s. In 1994 CPR left Saint John when it sold the line to shortline operator New Brunswick Southern Railway. The Canadian National Railway still services Saint John with a secondary mainline from Moncton. Despite these setbacks, Port Saint John is the largest port by volume in Eastern Canada, at about 28 million metric tonnes of cargo per year, including containers and bulk cargo.[128]



The city is the birthplace of several notable artists, actors and musicians, including Walter Pidgeon, Donald Sutherland, Louis B. Mayer, and Miller Brittain. What is considered the golden age of the Saint John arts community was during the post-war era from 1940 to 1970 when the city produced renowned artists and writers such as poet Kay Smith, painters Jack Humphrey, Miller Brittain, Bruno Bobak, Fred Ross, sculptor John Hooper and folk-singer Stompin' Tom Connors. Poet Bliss Carman once wrote about Saint John, "All the beauty and mystery Of life were there, adventure bold, Youth, and the glamour of the sea, And all its sorrows old."[129]

Dance, music, and theatre


Comhaltas Saint John: Comhaltas Ceoltóirí Éireann was founded in Dublin, Ireland, in 1951. Its mandate is to promote traditional Irish music and culture, and there are more than 400 branches around the world. The Saint John branch of Comhaltas is the easternmost chapter in Canada. JP Collins Celtic Festival is an Irish festival celebrating Saint John's Irish heritage. The festival is named for a young Irish doctor James Patrick Collins who worked on Partridge Island quarantine station tending to sick Irish immigrants before he died there himself.

Arts organization include InterAction School of Performing Arts, New Brunswick Youth Orchestra, Symphony New Brunswick, TD Station, The Imperial Theatre, and the Saint John Free Public Library, among others.[citation needed]

Film and television

Snippet of lost film Blue Water (1924) from a newspaper advertisement

Saint John, as well as New Brunswick as a whole, entered the film industry in 1924 with the now-lost silent film Blue Water, produced by the once-successful Ernest Shipman. The film featured soon-to-be Hollywood star Norma Shearer, though it had a short-lived screening and failed to succeed commercially.[130] Saint John made a return to film with the Bravery in the Field (1979), a short drama film by the National Film Board of Canada both set and filmed in the city which was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Live Action Short Film.[131][132]

Saint John is notably one of the filming locations for Children of a Lesser God (1986),[133] a romance drama film that received five nominations at the 59th Academy Awards.[134] Marlee Matlin, in her film debut, won Best Actress, making her not only the youngest Best Actress winner but also the first deaf winner in Oscar history.[135][136] William Hurt, who made a return to the city for filming The 4th Floor (1999), befriended some Saint John residents during his time there for filming of Children of a Lesser God.[137] Other films shot in Saint John include The Secret Life of Algernon (1997),[138] crime drama Blue Hill Avenue (2001),[139] Jericho Mansions (2003),[140] Geraldine's Fortune (2004),[141] black comedy thriller Stuck (2007),[142] romantic drama Still Mine (2012),[143] and Steven Bernstein's depiction of Welsh poet Dylan Thomas Last Call (2017),[144] of which most extras were from Saint John.[145] Additionally, filming for Taylor Olson's upcoming film titled Unseen took place in the city between April and May 2024.[146]

In television, Saint John was featured in an episode of Hotel Impossible,[147] as well as in ARD television documentary Verrückt nach Meer.[148] Saint John was additionally a filming location for Canada Russia '72 (2006), a docudrama miniseries about the Summit Series.[149]



Saint John features multiple museums such as the Hatheway Labour Exhibit Centre,[150] the New Brunswick Black History Society's Black History Heritage Site located in the Brunswick Square mall, the Carleton Martello Tower, Fort Howe, the Loyalist House, the Saint John Jewish Historical Museum, the Saint John Firefighters Museum,[151] as well as the New Brunswick Museum, Canada's first public museum. Saint John also had the Barbour's General Store, but it was later demolished in July 2023 after having received excessive fire damage in early 2022.[152][153][154]

National Historic sites


Saint John is home to several National Historic Sites, including war fortifications such as the Carleton Martello Tower, a War of 1812 masonry tower, Fort Menagoueche, a former French fort from Father Le Loutre's War, Fort Howe, a British fort built during the American Revolution, and Fort La Tour. Other sites include the Imperial Theatre, the Loyalist House, the Saint John City Market, Partridge Island, the Prince William Streetscape, the Saint John Firefighters' Museum and the Bank of New Brunswick.



Early settlers influenced music in Saint John from the time the area had been a series of forts for the English and French colonists. Working class fishers, labourers and shipbuilders carried Maritime traditions and folk songs with kitchen parties and outdoor gatherings. But musical high culture was captured by the wealthy. New Brunswick's solicitor-general 1784–1808, Ward Chipman Sr was known to have fancy soirées at his home with all the latest songs from London. A notable Loyalist musician, Stephen Humbert, moved in 1783 from New Jersey to Saint John and opened a Sacred Vocal Music School. In 1801 Humbert published Union Harmony, the first Canadian music book in English. The Mechanics' Institute, built in 1840, was the first large-scale platform for comic opera and concerts. In 1950 The Saint John Symphony was founded by Kelsey Jones; by 1983 the organization became Symphony New Brunswick.[156] Some musicians from Saint John include Berkley Chadwick,[157] Stompin' Tom Connors,[158] Ken Tobias,[159] Blank Banshee, Stevedore Steve,[160] Jane Coop, Bruce Holder, Frances James,[161] songwriter Michael F. Kelly,[156] Ned Landry,[162] composer and teacher Edward Betts Manning,[156] organist Paul Murray,[163] Catherine McKinnon, Patricia Rideout, Philip Thomson, and tenor and choir conductor Gordon Wry.

Music festivals have long been a part of the city's cultural scene. New Brunswick's Music Festival was held in Saint John every Spring in the early- to mid-20th century.[164] As the city's music changed with the times, so did its festivals. Other popular festivals include the now defunct Festival By The Sea[165] and Salty Jam[166] catering to various genres of pop music.

The Area 506 music festival is held every New Brunswick Day long-weekend at Long Wharf on Saint John Harbour. The festival is set up with shipping containers from the port with vendors from New Brunswick companies to promote local business. A main stage area is also set up for night time shows with local acts as well as major groups. Major bands to have played Area 506 include Tegan and Sara, Stars, Bahamas, Interpol, and Arkells. Each year the festival also includes a bevy of bands coming out of the Saint John music scene.[167] Quality Block Party music festival hosts independent New Brunswick musicians in smaller venues throughout uptown Saint John. The festival gets its name from the old quality block on Germain Street.[168]

Government and politics

Saint John City Hall

Government and court


Saint John's municipal government consists of a mayor and ten city councillors, with four-year term elections.[169][170] Saint John is one of five chartered cities in Canada, giving it unique legislative powers.[171] It is in the federal riding of Saint John—Rothesay, which currently contains one MP belonging to the Liberal party.[172][173]

Saint John is served by the Provincial Court of New Brunswick, the province's lower trial court. Saint John is also home to the provincial court's mental health court.[174][175] The Chief Judge for the Provincial Court is Marco Cloutier.[176][177]



The office of the mayor has been held by Donna Reardon since 2021, elected during the last municipal elections.[178] She is the 79th mayor of Saint John.[179] Previous mayors include Robert Duncan Wilmot, one of the Fathers of Confederation and a Lieutenant Governor of New Brunswick,[180] Legislative Council of New Brunswick and Senate of Canada member John Robertson,[181] Bank of New Brunswick director and Liberal House of Commons of Canada member Jeremiah Smith Boies De Veber,[182][183][184] physician and Senate of Canada member John Waterhouse Daniel,[185] and Minister of National Revenue David Laurence MacLaren.[186]

The Saint John City Council consists of the Mayor, the Deputy Mayor and ten Councillors, two of which overlook the city and the other eight overlooking one of four wards.[170]

Public safety

Saint John Police utility vehicles

Police and law enforcement


Saint John's law enforcement agency is the Saint John Police Force. It was established in 1849, though police forces in the city date back to 1809.[187] The police force had 139 sworn officers as of December 31, 2022.[188]

Fire department


Saint John is served under the firefighters of the Saint John Fire Department, which was established in 1786.[189] There are six active fire stations throughout the city under operation by the fire department.[190]


Many of Saint John's military divisions have utilized the Barrack Green Armoury (pictured)

Besides being the location of several historical forts, such as Fort Howe, Fort Dufferin, Fort Latour, and the Carleton Martello Tower, Saint John is the location of a number of reserve units of the Canadian Forces.



Primary and secondary


Saint John is served by two school boards. One is the Anglophone board, known as the Anglophone South School District, one of the four Anglophone K–12 school districts in New Brunswick, and headquartered in Saint John.[191][192] The other school board is the Francophone board, named the Francophone Sud School District, which is based out of Dieppe and serves Saint John's only Francophone school, École Samuel-de-Champlain.

There are 25 public K–12 schools in Saint John, with 24 being anglophone and one being francophone. The city is home to Saint John High School, Canada's oldest publicly funded high school.[193] There is also Harbour View High School, St. Malachy's Memorial High School, and Simonds High School.


The Hans W. Klohn Commons at the University of New Brunswick

Saint John is home to a number of post-secondary institutions, including the smaller of the two campuses of the University of New Brunswick, the Saint John campus (UNBSJ). Opened in 1969 and located next to the Saint John Regional Hospital near Millidgeville,[194] the campus serves around 2,000 of UNB's total student body.[195] As a result of its proximity to the hospital, the Saint John campus also houses Dalhousie Medicine New Brunswick for Dalhousie University as well as the Gerald S Merrithew Allied Health Education Centre for the provincial community college.[196][197] Saint John also contains one of the campuses for the New Brunswick Community College as well as a campus for Eastern College.[198][199]

In the fall of 2007, a report commissioned by the provincial government recommended UNBSJ and the NBCC be reformed and consolidated into a new polytechnic post-secondary institute. The proposal immediately came under heavy criticism and led to the organizing of several protests in the uptown area, citing the diminishment of UNB as a nationally accredited university, the reduction in accessibility to receive degrees – and these are only a couple of the reasons why the community was enraged by the recommendation. Support for keeping UNBSJ as it was, and expanding the university under its current structure, fell slightly below 90%. Seeing too much political capital would be lost, and several Saint John MPs were likely not to support the initiative if the policies recommended by the report were legislated, the government abandoned the commission's report and created an intra-provincial post-secondary commission.[200][201]

Public library system


First opening on May 18, 1883,[202] the Saint John Free Public Library was among Canada's first free libraries.[203] It first operated out of the Saint John City Market with a book inventory of 2,885. It temporarily relocated to the Saint John Masonic Temple before moving to a building funded by Andrew Carnegie and constructed in 1904, where it operated until moving to its present location in Market Square in 1983.[204] The library currently maintains three branches.[205]



Canada's first trade union


Saint John is often described as the birthplace of unionism in Canada and is one of the few pre-capitalist colonial settlements in North America. The city has a history of labour achievements and sparked the Canadian labour movement with Canada's first trade union, the Labourers' Benevolent Association (now International Longshoremen's Association Local 273). In 1849 the union was formed when Saint John's longshoremen banded together to lobby for regular pay and a shorter workday. One of their first resolutions was to apply to the city council for permission to erect the bell, which would announce the beginning and end of the labourers' 10-hour workday. As the bell shears were hardly finished when capitalists and merchants in the city objected to the bell and successfully lobbied city hall to keep the bell from being put up. But then, citizens and longshoremen defied the order and erected a larger bell and merchants withdrew their opposition to the "Labourers' Bell". ILA Local 273 remain one of the city's strongest trade unions to this day.[206]

The Saint John Street Railwaymen's strike and riot of 1914

1914 Saint John Railwaymen's Strike riot

The 1914 Saint John street railway strike (sometimes called the Saint John street railwaymen's strike)[207] was a strike by workers on the street railway system in the city which lasted from July 22 to 24, 1914, with rioting by Saint John inhabitants occurring on July 23 and 24. The strike was important for shattering the image of Saint John as a conservative town dominated primarily by ethnic and religious (rather than class) divisions, and highlighting tensions between railway industrialists and the local working population.

October 14, 1976: The Saint John General Strike


The Saint John General Strike of 1976 was a result of the Bill C-73 passed by Prime Minister of Canada, Pierre Elliott Trudeau, and the House of Commons in Ottawa on October 14, 1975. This bill limited wage increases to 8% the first year, 6% the second year, and 4% the third year after its enactment. Most provinces of Canada accepted the bill by spring of 1976, but within eighteen months they began to withdraw from the program. After its introduction in 1975, it was not until 1976 that the Anti-Inflation Board (AIB) began to roll back workers' wages. The employees of Irving Pulp and Paper, members of the Canadian Paper Workers Union, were among the first to experience the roll backs implemented by the AIB. The paper workers were required to give back to the employer 9.8% of their previous wage increase the first year, and 11% the second year. The Atlantic Sugar Refinery workers of the Bakery and Confectionary Workers International Union of America soon felt the burden as well. The majority of workers within Saint John were influenced by the AIB by January 1976. On February 5, 1976, the Saint John District and the Labour Council held a conference to plan an organized opposition to the AIB. Fifty-two people came to the meeting as representatives of twenty-six unions in Saint John. The council was led by the Labour Council president, George Vair. They began by educating those present on wage control legislation, but swiftly transitioned into rallying and demonstrating in opposition throughout the city. Five thousand marched from numerous ends of the town to King Square. All major industries in Saint John were shut down.[208]

The Irving Oil Refinery strike, 1994–1996


On May 12, 1994, at 4:30 pm, members of Local 691 of the Communications, Energy and Paperworkers (CEP) union at the Irving Oil Ltd. Refinery went on strike. At this time the refinery's management took over its operations. Irving had argued the refinery might have to shut down and had to bring in a bevy of rollbacks to the workers' pay and benefits and other changes to the collective agreement. Local 691 argued Irving simply wished to lengthen the work week without paying workers overtime rates. The strike lasted 27 months and was based on Irving's demands for flexibility of the workers to ensure the refinery was competitive. The strike is seen as symbolic of a rollback of labour and democratic collective bargaining rights that have been in decline across North America.[209]





Saint John's daily newspaper is the Telegraph-Journal, which was previously owned by J. D. Irving under their Saint John-based publishing company Brunswick News, until its acquisition by Postmedia Network in 2022.[210] The newspaper was created in 1923, following the merger of The Daily Journal and The Daily Telegraph and The Sun,[211] which itself was created from the merging of The Sun and Daily Telegraph.[212] Additionally, the University of New Brunswick Saint John campus (UNBSJ) has a student newspaper The Baron.[213]

One of the first Black Canadian magazines, Neith, was published in Saint John in 1903–1904 by Abraham Beverley Walker.[214]



Saint John's television market is served by two stations, those being CHNB-DT (Global) and CKLT-DT (CTV).[215] CHNB-DT is operated in Brunswick Square.[216]



Saint John is served by both anglophone and francophone radio stations, with all but one being FM broadcast. Music stations include CHWV-FM, (hot adult contemporary), CIOK-FM (adult contemporary), CJRP-FM (Christian contemporary), CJYC-FM (classic hits), CHNI-FM (classic/active rock), CHSJ-FM and CFBC (both country), and CINB-FM (oldies/classic hits).[217] Francophone stations include CHQC-FM (community radio) as well as two other rebroadcast stations CBAL-FM-4 (classical/jazz music) and CBAF-FM-1 (news/talk). The third rebroadcast station in the city, CBZ-FM, is anglophone.

Saint John also has one anglophone news/talk station CBD-FM as well as one campus radio station CFMH-FM for the University of New Brunswick Saint John campus (UNBSJ).


Looking east on the Saint John Throughway, right before the Harbour Bridge and the now closed (since 2011) toll plaza
A Saint John Transit bus in uptown



Air service into Saint John is provided by the Saint John Airport, near Loch Lomond 8 nautical miles (15 km; 9.2 mi) east northeast of the central business district[218] or approximately 25 km (16 mi) by road northeast of the city centre. Flights are offered by Sunwing Airlines (seasonal) and Air Canada (Air Canada Express and Air Canada Rouge). In 2011, WestJet decided to withdraw from the Saint John Airport. Quebec-based Pascan Aviation announced its expansion into Saint John in late 2012, with direct flights from Saint John to Quebec City, Newfoundland, and other destinations beginning in September 2012. Porter Airlines flies once daily from Saint John, to Ottawa and Toronto Island Airport.[219]



The main highway in the city is the Saint John Throughway (Route 1). Route 1 extends west to the United States border, and northeast towards both Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia. A second major highway, Route 7, connects Saint John with Fredericton. There are two main road crossings over the Saint John River: the Harbour Bridge and the Reversing Falls Bridge, approximately 1 nautical mile (1.9 km) upstream.



Prior to 1918, rail travel to and from Saint John would be carried out through the Intercolonial Railway.[220]

The Reversing Falls Railway Bridge carries rail traffic for the New Brunswick Southern Railway on the route from Saint John to Maine. Saint John was serviced by the "Atlantic" Line of Via Rail passenger service. Passenger rail service in Saint John was discontinued in December 1994, although the Canadian National Railway and New Brunswick Southern Railway continue to provide freight service.

Port and ferries


Port Saint John is located where the Saint John River meets the Atlantic Ocean. Thus both the ocean and the river system is navigable from Saint John docks.[221] Bay Ferries operates a ferry service, MV Fundy Rose, across the Bay of Fundy to Digby, Nova Scotia.

The Summerville-Millidgeville Ferry, a seasonal toll-free ferry service operated by the New Brunswick Department of Transportation, connects the Millidgeville neighbourhood with Summerville, located across the Kennebecasis River on the Kingston Peninsula. Operating from April until the winter season,[222] the service uses the Peninsula Princess, a ferry which, unlike other toll-free ferries in the region, is self-propelled rather than a cable ferry.[223]

Public transit


Saint John Transit is the largest transit system in New Brunswick in both area coverage and ridership.[224] Bus service is provided by Saint John Transit (Greater Saint John Area) and Maritime Bus (Inter-city). Acadian Lines used to operate regular inter-city bus services between New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, Bangor, as well as Rivière-du-Loup, Quebec (connecting with Orléans Express). Maritime Bus has since replaced Acadian Lines as the regional bus service.[225]


TD Station is home to the city's Quebec Major Junior hockey team, Saint John Sea Dogs, and the Saint John Riptide of the National Basketball League of Canada

The following teams are based in Saint John:

The following sporting events have been held here:

Collegiately, Saint John is home to the ACAA UNB Saint John Seawolves, the athletic team representing UNBSJ. The team has six varsity sports: basketball, soccer and volleyball, for both men and women.[227]

Twin/sister cities


See also



  1. ^ This is the legal name in both English and French.
  2. ^ While other cities were founded as communities earlier, Saint John was the first to be incorporated as a city.
  3. ^ Based on station coordinates provided by Environment Canada, climate data recorded near downtown Saint John from January 1871 to September 1970, and at Saint John Airport from November 1946 to present.
  4. ^ Saint John was amalgamated with the neighbouring city of Portland in 1889.
  5. ^ Saint John was amalgamated with the neighbouring city of Lancaster and part of Simonds Parish in 1967.
  6. ^ Statistic includes all persons that did not make up part of a visible minority or an indigenous identity.
  7. ^ Statistic includes total responses of "West Asian" and "Arab" under visible minority section on census.
  8. ^ Statistic includes total responses of "Chinese", "Korean", and "Japanese" under visible minority section on census.
  9. ^ Statistic includes total responses of "Filipino" and "Southeast Asian" under visible minority section on census.
  10. ^ Statistic includes total responses of "Visible minority, n.i.e." and "Multiple visible minorities" under visible minority section on census.


  1. ^ Common Council Minutes - February 8, 2016
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Census Profile, 2021 Census: Saint John, New Brunswick". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 30 July 2022.
  3. ^ "Territorial Divisions Act (section 27(a))". The Province of New Brunswick, through the Queen's Printer. Archived from the original on 17 August 2021. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
  4. ^ a b McGahan, Elizabeth W. "Saint John".
  5. ^ "Statistics Canada, 2021 Census of Population". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 24 May 2023.
  6. ^ "Census Profile, 2021 Census: Saint John [Census metropolitan area], New Brunswick". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 30 July 2022.
  7. ^ "Saint John". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  8. ^ "Table 36-10-0468-01 Gross domestic product (GDP) at basic prices, by census metropolitan area (CMA) (x 1,000,000)". Statistics Canada. 27 January 2017. Archived from the original on 22 January 2021. Retrieved 27 April 2021.
  9. ^ a b "Saint John, NB". Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  10. ^ "Port Saint John reports 2016 tonnage". Archived from the original on 28 July 2017. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
  11. ^ "Census Profile, 2021 Census". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 30 July 2022.
  12. ^ Ratchford, Sarah; McGahan, Elizabeth W. (10 September 2012). "Saint John". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 19 June 2024.
  13. ^ "History". History | City of Saint John, New Brunswick. Retrieved 17 June 2024.
  14. ^ a b MacDonald (1983). Fortune & La Tour: The civil war in Acadia. Toronto: Methuen.
  15. ^ "Institutional Discrimination in the 1785 Saint John Royal Charter | The Loyalist Collection". loyalist.lib.unb.ca. Retrieved 11 May 2024.
  16. ^ a b "Saint John". Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  17. ^ "Underrated Saint John, New Brunswick". BBC. Retrieved 10 January 2024.
  18. ^ Canada's First City: Saint John. Saint John, N.B.: Lingley Printing. 1962. p. 30.
  19. ^ "The Ship Marco Polo". Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  20. ^ "Famous Glaswegians – Robert Foulis, Jr". Glasgow Guide. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 24 August 2019.
  21. ^ "For Whom The Bells Toll". Hatheway Labour Exhibit Center.
  22. ^ Winder, Gordon M. (2000). "Trouble in the North End: The Geography of Social Violence in Saint John 1840–1860". Acadiensis. XXIX (2 Spring): 27.
  23. ^ Bilson, Geoffrey (1974). "The Cholera Epidemic in Saint John, N.B., 1854". Acadiensis. 4 (1): 85–99.
  24. ^ a b Rubin, Richard (27 October 2016). "In Saint John in Canada, Exploring the Legacy of the Loyalists". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 January 2024.
  25. ^ Collins, Donald (20 June 2002). "Weary city resurfaces from ashes: In the weeks and months following the Great Fire of 1877, Saint John people and businesses persevered". newbrunswick.net. Telegraph-Journal (New Brunswick). Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  26. ^ Scientific American, "St. John, N.B., Burned". Munn & Company. 7 July 1877. p. 3.
  27. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
  28. ^ Arif, Hassan (21 July 2016). "Saint John: Photos of an underappreciated city". Spacing Atlantic. Retrieved 28 August 2023.
  29. ^ "Architectural Styles in Saint John 1785-1915". saintjohn.maps.arcgis.com. City of Saint John. Retrieved 14 April 2024.
  30. ^ "SAINT JOHN". Montreal Herald. 24 June 1889. Retrieved 6 March 2024.
  31. ^ "Music of the Eye II: Architectural Drawings of Saint John and Its Region". NBM-MNB. New Brunswick Museum. Retrieved 28 August 2023.
  32. ^ Wright, Julia (27 April 2018). "The story behind Saint John's strange stone carvings". CBC. Retrieved 28 August 2023.
  33. ^ "Visit Saint John and Discover Saint Awesome". MARITIMES MAVEN. 26 August 2020. Retrieved 28 August 2023.
  34. ^ "Trinity Royal". National Post. 14 May 1983. p. 53. Retrieved 6 March 2024.
  35. ^ "Trinity Royal - The Historic Heart of Saint John". 10 October 2008. Archived from the original on 10 October 2008. Retrieved 6 March 2024.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  36. ^ "Only a few modern monoliths mar Saint John's skyline". The Gazette. 25 April 1992. p. 91. Retrieved 6 March 2024.
  37. ^ "Saint John blends old and new in renewal of its city centre". The Gazette. 14 May 2005. p. 133. Retrieved 6 March 2024.
  38. ^ "Commercial Properties". Archived from the original on April 19, 2012.
  39. ^ "JD Irving".
  40. ^ "Canada". www.cbre.ca.
  41. ^ "Home". www.chateausaintjohn.ca.
  42. ^ "King's Square". King's Square | City of Saint John, New Brunswick.
  43. ^ "Queen Square". saintjohn.ca. City of Saint John, New Brunswick. Retrieved 4 January 2024.
  44. ^ "Queen Square Farmers Market | Discover Saint John". www.discoversaintjohn.com. Retrieved 4 January 2024.
  45. ^ MacRae, Avery (11 June 2023). "Queen's Square Farmers Market drawing big crowds early in the season". CTV Atlantic. Retrieved 4 January 2024.
  46. ^ "Irving Nature Park". Irving Nature Park | City of Saint John, New Brunswick.
  47. ^ "Explore the Irving Nature Park | Discover Saint John". www.discoversaintjohn.com.
  48. ^ "Rockwood Park". saintjohn.ca. City of Saint John, New Brunswick. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  49. ^ "Rockwood Park". Stonehammer UNESCO Global Geopark. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  50. ^ "ROCKWOOD PARK". rockwoodpark.ca. Rockwood Park. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  51. ^ "Neighbourhoods". catalogue-saintjohn.opendata.arcgis.com. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  52. ^ "Neighbourhoods". saintjohn.ca. City of Saint John. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  53. ^ "North End". North End. City of Saint John. 26 June 2022. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  54. ^ "Provincial Archives of New Brunswick". archives.gnb.ca. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  55. ^ "Millidgeville/Cedar Point". Millidgeville/Cedar Point. City of Saint John. 15 May 2022. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  56. ^ "Provincial Archives of New Brunswick". archives.gnb.ca. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  57. ^ "Demolition of Mount Pleasant homes is 'quite sad'". CBC. 8 July 2013. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  58. ^ "Provincial Archives of New Brunswick". archives.gnb.ca. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  59. ^ a b "Brookville/Glen Falls". Brookville/Glen Falls. City of Saint John. 24 April 2022. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  60. ^ "East Saint John/ McAllister". East Saint John/ McAllister. City of Saint John. 14 August 2022. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  61. ^ "Provincial Archives of New Brunswick". archives.gnb.ca. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  62. ^ "Champlain Heights/Eastwood". Champlain Heights/Eastwood. City of Saint John. 24 April 2022. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  63. ^ "Provincial Archives of New Brunswick". archives.gnb.ca. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  64. ^ "Red Head". Red Head. City of Saint John. 15 May 2022. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  65. ^ "Provincial Archives of New Brunswick". archives.gnb.ca. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  66. ^ "Provincial Archives of New Brunswick". archives.gnb.ca. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  67. ^ "Forest Hills/Lakewood". Forest Hills/Lakewood. City of Saint John. 1 August 2022. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  68. ^ "Provincial Archives of New Brunswick". archives.gnb.ca. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  69. ^ "Provincial Archives of New Brunswick". archives.gnb.ca. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  70. ^ "Loch Lomond/Latimer Lake". Loch Lomond/Latimer Lake. City of Saint John. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  71. ^ "Provincial Archives of New Brunswick". archives.gnb.ca. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  72. ^ "City Gets Glimpse Of What Saint Johners Think About South Central Peninsula". Country 94. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  73. ^ a b "South Central Peninsula". South Central Peninsula. City of Saint John. 3 April 2022. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  74. ^ "Provincial Archives of New Brunswick". archives.gnb.ca. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  75. ^ Desk, Atlantic Briefs (11 August 2023). "New 45-unit apartment complex with 23 affordable units proposed for Waterloo Village in Saint John, N.B. | SaltWire". www.saltwire.com. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  76. ^ "Provincial Archives of New Brunswick". archives.gnb.ca. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  77. ^ "Provincial Archives of New Brunswick". archives.gnb.ca. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  78. ^ "Saint John West". Saint John West. City of Saint John. 10 July 2022. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  79. ^ "Sand Cove". Sand Cove. City of Saint John. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  80. ^ "Provincial Archives of New Brunswick". archives.gnb.ca. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  81. ^ "Provincial Archives of New Brunswick". archives.gnb.ca. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  82. ^ "Island View/Fairville". Island View/Fairville. City of Saint John. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  83. ^ "Provincial Archives of New Brunswick". archives.gnb.ca. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  84. ^ "Provincial Archives of New Brunswick". archives.gnb.ca. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  85. ^ "Ocean Westway/Lorneville". Ocean Westway/Lorneville. City of Saint John. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  86. ^ "Milford Randolph". Milford Randolph. City of Saint John. 24 April 2022. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  87. ^ "Provincial Archives of New Brunswick". archives.gnb.ca. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  88. ^ "Provincial Archives of New Brunswick". archives.gnb.ca. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  89. ^ "South Bay". South Bay. City of Saint John. 24 April 2022. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  90. ^ "Provincial Archives of New Brunswick". archives.gnb.ca. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  91. ^ "Saint John A". Canadian Climate Normals 1971–2000. Environment Canada. 19 January 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
  92. ^ https://climate.weather.gc.ca/climate_data/daily_data_e.html?StationID=50310
  93. ^ a b c "Saint John A". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. 31 October 2011. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
  94. ^ "Saint John A". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Archived from the original on 31 October 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
  95. ^ "Saint John". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada. 31 October 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
  96. ^ "Hourly Data Report for March 21, 2012". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada. 31 October 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
  97. ^ "Daily Data Report for March 2012". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada. 31 October 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
  98. ^ Wallace, C. M. (June 1975). "Saint John, New Brunswick (1800-1900)". Urban History Review / Revue d'Histoire Urbaine. 4 (1): 12–21. doi:10.7202/1020578ar. JSTOR 43558749.
  99. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (9 February 2022). "Ranking of the 10 most populated municipalities, 1901 to 2021". www12.statcan.gc.ca.
  100. ^ Marquis, Greg (1 January 2010). "Uneven Renaissance: Urban Development in Saint John, 1955-1976". Journal of New Brunswick Studies / Revue d'études sur le Nouveau-Brunswick. 1.
  101. ^ "Profile table, Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population - 13010052 [Dissemination area], New Brunswick". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Statistics Canada. 9 February 2022. Retrieved 27 April 2024.
  102. ^ "Population and dwelling counts: Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations". Statistics Canada. 9 February 2022. Retrieved 28 March 2022.
  103. ^ "Before Willie O'Ree: New Brunswick's surprising black history contributions". CBC. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
  104. ^ Thomas P. Power, ed., The Irish in Atlantic Canada, 1780-1900 (Fredericton, NB: New Ireland Press, 1991)
  105. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (27 October 2021). "Census Profile, 2016 Census". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 19 May 2023.
  106. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (27 November 2015). "NHS Profile". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 19 May 2023.
  107. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (20 August 2019). "2006 Community Profiles". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 19 May 2023.
  108. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2 July 2019). "2001 Community Profiles". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 19 May 2023.
  109. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (8 May 2013). "2011 National Household Survey Profile - Census subdivision". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 14 January 2023.
  110. ^ a b "Geography and Governance: The Problem of Saint John (New Brunswick) 1785 - 1927 - Ged Martin". www.gedmartin.net.
  111. ^ Hale, C. Anne. "The Rebuilding of Saint John New Brunswick 1877-1881" (PDF).
  112. ^ a b c d "Saint John". www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca.
  113. ^ "Strategic Winter Port: A History of the Port of Saint John | Canadian Museum of Immigration at Pier 21". pier21.ca.
  114. ^ "Saint John | History & Points of Interest | Britannica". www.britannica.com. 3 March 2024.
  115. ^ "Irving family closing idled Saint John shipyard". CBC News. 27 June 2003. Retrieved 31 July 2023.
  116. ^ "Saint John Shipyard and Dry Dock Co Ltd". www.unb.ca. University of New Brunswick. Retrieved 31 July 2023.
  117. ^ "DISCOVER SAINT JOHN 2018 ANNUAL REPORT" (PDF). www.discoversaintjohn.com. Discover Saint John. Retrieved 31 July 2023.
  118. ^ "CRUISE LINES". Port Saint John.
  119. ^ McGillivray, Robert (26 September 2022). "Canada Cruise Port Reaches Major Passenger Milestone". Cruise Hive.
  120. ^ Wright, Julia (8 June 2023). "Meet the marine pilots guiding huge ships into Saint John's notoriously difficult port". CBC News. Retrieved 31 July 2023.
  121. ^ "Cruise Schedule". Port Saint John.
  122. ^ "ANNUAL REPORT 2022" (PDF). Port Saint John. Retrieved 1 August 2023.
  123. ^ "Saint John Port". World Port Source. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  124. ^ "Port Saint John". www.sjport.com/.
  125. ^ "Facilities: Hospitals". Horizon Health Services. Retrieved 26 August 2019. Hospitals in the Saint John Region: Charlotte County Hospital, Grand Manan Hospital, Saint John Regional Hospital, St. Joseph's Hospital and Sussex Health Centre.
  126. ^ "Marine Biology". UNB. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  127. ^ "Cooke Seafood". Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  128. ^ "Port Saint John". Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  129. ^ "Saint John: City of Firsts". Maclean's.
  130. ^ Webb, Steven (11 September 2022). "Lost to history, Saint John's silent movie is barely a memory a century later". CBC News. Retrieved 30 April 2024.
  131. ^ "Today and tomorrow". Telegraph-Journal. 10 November 2007. ProQuest 423280123. Retrieved 30 April 2024.
  132. ^ "NFB film up for an Oscar". Canadian Press. Calgary Herald. 28 February 1980. p. 49. Retrieved 30 April 2024.
  133. ^ "Saint John actor remembers working with William Hurt in city". CBC News. 15 March 2022. Retrieved 30 April 2024.
  134. ^ Lakritz, Talia (8 March 2024). "24 times the Oscars snubbed female directors". Business Insider. Retrieved 30 April 2024.
  135. ^ Lynn, Elber (2 March 2013). "Switched at Birth airs a silent episode". Telegraph-Journal. ProQuest 1313930552. Retrieved 30 April 2024.
  136. ^ Schuchman, John S. (1999). Hollywood Speaks: Deafness and the Film Entertainment Industry. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. p. 82. ISBN 978-0-252-06850-8.
  137. ^ Mott, Sean (16 March 2022). "Hurt befriended residents while filming". Telegraph-Journal. ProQuest 2887955015. Retrieved 30 April 2024.
  138. ^ Macdonald, Ronald F. "From sea to sea: East coast [17th Atlantic Film Festival]". Canadian Independent Film & Television Publishing Association. ProQuest 216177417. Retrieved 30 April 2024.
  139. ^ "Cameras Rolling; Expect to see movie cameras, crews and actors on Charlotte and Princess Streets today as filming begins for Blue Hill Avenue". Telegraph-Journal. 3 October 2000. ProQuest 423114214. Retrieved 30 April 2024.
  140. ^ McDonald, Christie (16 November 2002). "Make Believe; The makers of 'Jericho Mansion' build fake houses and bend light to make it look 'real'". Telegraph-Journal. ProQuest 423186913. Retrieved 30 April 2024.
  141. ^ Mullen, Mike (23 October 2010). "The last Waltz; Music Classic rock 'n' roll stalwarts Donnie and The Monarchs hanging up their white tuxes after nearly 30 years". Telegraph-Journal. ProQuest 759626848. Retrieved 30 April 2024.
  142. ^ Darling, Cary (8 June 2008). "Five Questions With Stuart Gordon, director of 'Stuck'". Fort Worth Star-Telegram. p. 69. Retrieved 30 April 2024.
  143. ^ Gallant, Vanessa (7 May 2013). "'Still Mine' opens Friday in Metro; ? True story of St. Martins man's struggle against building inspectors inspired film". Times & Transcript. ProQuest 1348777653. Retrieved 30 April 2024.
  144. ^ Stevenson, Verity (20 June 2014). "Hollywood feature being filmed in Saint John this weekend". Telegraph-Journal. ProQuest 1537518851. Retrieved 30 April 2024.
  145. ^ Stevenson, Verity (25 June 2014). "A perfect Hollywood movie set". Telegraph-Journal. ProQuest 1539633971. Retrieved 30 April 2024.
  146. ^ Bates, Andrew (19 April 2024). "Saint John announces street closures for film shoot". Telegraph-Journal. Retrieved 30 April 2024.
  147. ^ "Hotel Impossible profiles Saint John's Chipman Hill Suites". CBC News. 9 December 2013. Retrieved 30 April 2024.
  148. ^ "Verrückt nach Meer Staffel 7, Folge 44: Mutprobe in Saint John" (in German). fernsehserien.de. 7 January 2024. Retrieved 30 April 2024.
  149. ^ Briggs, Scott (6 April 2013). "Mr. D happy to have future NHLer as part of his cast; Television Hockey players MacKinnon and Critchlow say comedian a class act during show's filming". Telegraph-Journal. ProQuest 1324251113. Retrieved 30 April 2024.
  150. ^ "Frank & Ella Hatheway Labour Exhibit Centre".
  151. ^ "Visit the Saint John Firefighter's Museum".
  152. ^ MacRae, Avery (15 July 2023). "Barbour's General Store site demolished, new welcome centre set to open in 2024". CTV Atlantic. Retrieved 3 March 2024.
  153. ^ Power, Zack (16 June 2023). "New concept proposed for site of landmark Barbour's General Store in Saint John - New Brunswick | Globalnews.ca". Global News. Retrieved 3 March 2024.
  154. ^ Urquhart, Mia (4 July 2023). "Dismantling of historic Barbour's General Store to go ahead as planned". CBC News. Retrieved 3 March 2024.
  155. ^ "Cheers, Saint John: Port City Has Third Most Bars Per Capita In Country". Acadia Broadcasting Ltd. Archived from the original on 5 February 2018. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
  156. ^ a b c "Music in Saint John". Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  157. ^ "Berkley E. Chadwick". www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 27 March 2024.
  158. ^ Martin, Douglas (7 March 2013). "Stompin' Tom Connors, Canadian Singer, Dies at 77". New York Times. Retrieved 27 March 2024.
  159. ^ "Ken Tobias". www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 27 March 2024.
  160. ^ "Stevedore Steve, writer of Lester the Lobster, dead at 80". Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  161. ^ "Frances James". www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 27 March 2024.
  162. ^ "Ned Landry". www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 27 March 2024.
  163. ^ "Paul Murray". www.renforthmusic.com. Renforth Music. Retrieved 27 March 2024.
  164. ^ "Salty Jam . July 5&6 . Headliners Announced - Uptown Saint John". Maclean's. Archived from the original on 13 November 2019. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  165. ^ "Annual Festivals". Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  166. ^ "Salty Jam . July 5&6 . Headliners Announced - Uptown Saint John". Uptown Saint John. Archived from the original on 13 November 2019. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  167. ^ "Saint John waterfront transformed into shipping container village for Area 506 festival". Retrieved 2 August 2017.
  168. ^ "Quality Block Party vies for status as 'destination festival'". CBC. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  169. ^ "Institutional Discrimination in the 1785 Saint John Royal Charter". UNB. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  170. ^ a b "Running for Common Council". City of Saint John. Retrieved 15 December 2023.
  171. ^ "Is 'Charter-City Status' a Solution for Financing City Services in Canada — Or is that a Myth?" (PDF). University of Calgary. Retrieved 21 August 2018.
  172. ^ Cox, Aidan (1 December 2022). "Commission sticks to plan that splits Saint John between 2 ridings". CBC News. Retrieved 15 December 2023.
  173. ^ Urquhart, Mia (17 June 2022). "Proposal to split Saint John into two federal ridings baffles MP". CBC News. Retrieved 15 December 2023.
  174. ^ New Brunswick Courts, Canada (12 January 2018). "NB Provincial Court". www.courtsnb-coursnb.ca. Retrieved 15 December 2023.
  175. ^ Lyall, Laura (16 November 2019). "Success of Saint John Mental Health Court has advocates calling for expansion in N.B." CTV Atlantic. Retrieved 15 December 2023.
  176. ^ "Provincial Court Judges". www.courtsnb-coursnb.ca. New Brunswick Courts. 23 February 2018. Retrieved 5 March 2024.
  177. ^ Herd, Tim. "Province Appoints Chief Provincial Court Judge". 91.9 The Bend. Retrieved 5 March 2024.
  178. ^ Cox, Aidan; Leger, Isabelle (24 May 2021). "Women win mayoral races in N.B.'s 3 biggest cities". CBC News. Retrieved 15 December 2023.
  179. ^ Burnett, Ben (8 June 2021). "Saint John's New Council Sworn In Monday". Country 94. Retrieved 15 December 2023.
  180. ^ "Robert Duncan Wilmot". www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 15 December 2023.
  181. ^ "DEATH OF HON. JOHN ROBERTSON". The Globe. 10 August 1876. Retrieved 5 March 2024.
  182. ^ "IN THE PUBLIC EYE". The Ottawa Journal. 20 March 1912. p. 6. Retrieved 5 March 2024.
  183. ^ "J.S Boies Deveber of St. John". Kennebec Journal. 19 June 1908. p. 8. Retrieved 5 March 2024.
  184. ^ "J. S. Boies Deveber". The Gazette. 20 June 1908. p. 4. Retrieved 5 March 2024.
  185. ^ "Hon. Dr. J. W. Daniel Passes in New Brunswick". The Hamilton Spectator. 12 January 1933. p. 11. Retrieved 5 March 2024.
  186. ^ "Minister of Revenue". Saint John Telegraph-Journal. The Ottawa Journal. 26 April 1945. p. 8. Retrieved 5 March 2024.
  187. ^ "History". Saint John Police Force. 22 December 2022. Retrieved 7 April 2024.
  188. ^ "2022 Annual Report" (PDF). Saint John Police Force. Retrieved 7 April 2024.
  189. ^ "Saint John Fire Department". City of Saint John, New Brunswick. Retrieved 7 April 2024.
  190. ^ "CSJ Fire Stations". saintjohn.maps.arcgis.com. City of Saint John.
  191. ^ "LinkedIn Login, Sign in". LinkedIn.
  192. ^ "Anglophone School District Information". www2.gnb.ca. Government of New Brunswick, Canada. 30 October 2014.
  193. ^ "Schools". Schools | City of Saint John, New Brunswick.
  194. ^ "Historical Sketch - Saint John Campus History". www.unb.ca. University of New Brunswick. Retrieved 30 November 2023.
  195. ^ "Table 1: Total Enrolment by Province, Institution and Registration Status, 2017-2018 to 2021-2022" (PDF). mphec.ca. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 September 2023. Retrieved 7 September 2023.
  196. ^ "About". Dalhousie University. Dalhousie University. Retrieved 30 November 2023.
  197. ^ "Official opening of NBCC's Allied Health Education Centre". www2.gnb.ca. Government of New Brunswick, Canada. 1 September 2011. Retrieved 30 November 2023.
  198. ^ "Saint John Campus". Eastern College. Retrieved 30 November 2023.
  199. ^ "NBCC Saint John Campus". nbcc.ca. Retrieved 30 November 2023.
  200. ^ "New Brunswick: Post-Secondary Education Report Ignites Firestorm of Opposition". bulletin-archives.caut.ca. October 2007. Retrieved 30 November 2023.
  201. ^ Tunney, Joseph (26 February 2018). "In retrospect: Was Saint John polytechnic institute best option for New Brunswick?". CBC News. Retrieved 30 November 2023.
  202. ^ Letson, Cherise (12 June 2013). "Saint John Free Public Library celebrates 130 years this week". Telegraph-Journal. ProQuest 1366564931. Retrieved 27 April 2024.
  203. ^ Silcox, Ben (3 February 2017). "Saint John makerspace to feature programming equipment, 3D printer". Telegraph-Journal. ProQuest 1895679763. Retrieved 27 April 2024.
  204. ^ Bartlett, Bruce (14 June 2013). "Library has come a long way in the last 130 years". Telegraph-Journal. ProQuest 1367471965. Retrieved 27 April 2024.
  205. ^ "Saint John Free Public Library". marketsquaresj.com. Market Square. 13 May 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2024.
  206. ^ "For Whom The Bells Toll". Hatheway Labour Exhibit Center. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  207. ^ Babcock, Robert H. (January 1982). "The Saint John Street Railwaymen's Strike and Riot, 1914". Acadiensis. 11 (2). University of New Brunswick. ISSN 0044-5851. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
  208. ^ "Canadian workers strike against wage controls, 1976". Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  209. ^ Steuter, Erin; Martin, Geoff. "The Myth of the Competitive Challenge: The Irving Oil Refinery Strike, 1994–96 and the Canadian Petroleum Industry". Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  210. ^ Ibrahim, Hadeel (18 February 2022). "Irving-owned New Brunswick newspapers to be sold to Postmedia". CBC News. Retrieved 30 April 2024.
  211. ^ "Telegraph Journal (1923)". University of New Brunswick. New Brunswick Brunswick Historical Newspapers Project. Retrieved 22 June 2024.
  212. ^ "The Daily Telegraph and The Sun (Saint John, New Brunswick: 1910)". University of New Brunswick. New Brunswick Historical Newspapers Project. Retrieved 22 June 2024.
  213. ^ Tiwari, Nipun (13 April 2024). "Student newspaper at UNB Saint John goes back to the future with print editions". CBC News. Retrieved 30 April 2024.
  214. ^ Johnson, Billy (October 2022). "Introduction to Neith". Canadian Modernist Magazines Project. Retrieved 6 June 2024.
  215. ^ "Stations for Saint John, New Brunswick". www.rabbitears.info.
  216. ^ "CHNB-DT | History of Canadian Broadcasting". broadcasting-history.com.
  217. ^ Reid, Andy. "New Brunswick - Canadian Radio Directory - Radio Stations". Canadian Radio Directory. Retrieved 30 November 2023.
  218. ^ Canada Flight Supplement. Effective 0901Z 16 July 2020 to 0901Z 10 September 2020.
  219. ^ "PASCAN Aviation confirms its schedule of flights from Saint John, NB starting September 17". Canada Newswire. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
  220. ^ Mulhall, James M. (1888). Tourists' guide to Saint John and the province of New Brunswick. Saint John: Canada Railway News Company. p. 28. Retrieved 6 March 2024.
  221. ^ "Facilities and Operations". Port Saint John. 10 May 2016. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  222. ^ "Summerville-Millidgeville Ferry". tourismnewbrunswick.ca. Retrieved 27 March 2024.
  223. ^ Wright, Julia (12 October 2013). "Ferry tale: How cable ferries became a way of life in southern N.B." CBC News. Retrieved 27 March 2024.
  224. ^ "Organization". Saint John Transit. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  225. ^ "UARB names bus company to replace Acadian Lines". Rogers. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  226. ^ Goodman, David (20 February 1988). "World Champion Eliminated From Blitz Chess Tournament". Associated Press. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  227. ^ "About our varsity teams". University of New Brunswick. Retrieved 30 April 2024.
  228. ^ Tremble, T.J. (23 May 1987). "Saint John, Bangor become 'sisters'". The Bangor Daily News. Retrieved 7 April 2024.
  229. ^ "International Connections". english.shantou.gov.cn. Shantou. Retrieved 7 April 2024.
  230. ^ team, KoreanDogs org (5 December 2016). "Sister City Campaign Center (Non-US)". Stop the Dog and Cat Consumption in S. Korea!. Retrieved 7 April 2024.
  231. ^ "Report: Visit of the Honourable Noël A. Kinsella, Speaker of the Senate, and a Parliamentary Delegation, to the Holy See, Romania and Slovenia" (PDF). Parliament of Canada. p. 17. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 February 2017. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  232. ^ "Saint John – The city has a twin on the Adriatic Sea". Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  233. ^ "Newport Destination Guide" (PDF). Newport. Retrieved 7 April 2024.
  234. ^ Irving, Margaret. "Paris Crew". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 10 July 2017.